How to Write Analytical or Argumentative Research Papers

Research papers can be easily differentiated from personal essays on the basis of the extensive research that is executed before the writing of such papers. Research papers thus act as that creative output in which the writers’ personal thoughts and opinions are merged with theories from already established sources.

However, the technique used in the presentation of the paper may make it fall under two broad categories: 1. Analytical, 2. Argumentative, in fact the strategy used by the writer to compose his paper will eventually determine the aim and purpose of the paper.

A detailed discussion of these two methods will clarify the concepts presented above:

1. Analytical Papers

In an analytical research paper, the aim is to attain a thorough expertise of the concept that is being presented so that it can be broken down and represented from the writers’ point of view.

In this form of the research paper, an individual approaches the research question without any pre-conceived notions and ideas about the subject at hand. Thereafter a careful survey of the opinions and views is undertaken. Ultimately when familiarity with the topic is achieved; a person is able to restructure and relocate the concepts that underlie the basic topic in his paper; the very essence of an analytical paper; critical contemplation and evaluation of the question at hand is necessary for an analytical paper.

2. Argumentative Papers

This type of a paper may also be termed a persuasive paper. Aside from critical thinking which is essential for the production of a quality paper, another familiar concept that dominates academic circles is the concept of an argument.

You may wish to read more at: Writing a Thesis

The basic difference from the former kind that qualifies the persuasive kind is that the paper takes a conscious stance and argues in favor of one of the arguments with cogent facts and points presented in its favor. The aim is to mould the reader’s mind in favor of one possible answer to the research question backed by reliable data and arguments.

To conclude; both approaches require logical thinking and smart evaluation alongside comprehensive research of the available sources. However the difference is created through the process of writing, analytical papers provide a more balanced approach where all views pertaining to the question are presented whereas argumentative papers debate in favor of one logical solution above the others.

More Answers available at: Are you Stuck writing a Research Paper?

Overcoming Challenging School Environments

Teacher quality and related issues (i.e., teacher preparation, recruitment, and professional development) ranked among the highest priority areas among a sample of education policymakers surveyed by the Institute of Education Sciences. And it is not surprising that quality teaching also emerged as a central theme in one recent series of Policy Forums.

These Policy Forums-designed for policymakers, other local leaders, and national experts to discuss critical education policy issues that impact students, schools, and communities-examined current and emerging research on major questions about improvement in content knowledge and pedagogy as they relate to improving teacher quality. Policymakers and other stakeholders learned about promising ideas and practices and discussed applications and implications for future policy and research.

While addressing many issues related to improving teaching quality, the Policy Forums focused on the following three key aspects of teacher quality:

– raising standards for and assuring quality in professional preparation and development programs;

– effectively identifying and addressing causes of staff shortages; and

– providing high-quality teaching for students in the most challenging school environments.

Focusing on Standards and Quality

States are working feverishly to meet the requirement of having a highly qualified teacher in every classroom. Guidance from the U.S. Department of Education continues to evolve with input from the field, providing increased flexibility for states to address challenges posed by the law.

Policymakers across the region agree that achieving their goals will necessitate going beyond having teachers pass certain tests and/or meet current certification requirements. They recognize the need for data on teachers and teaching to inform their decision making. Policy Forum participants learned that many research efforts have begun to concentrate more deeply than ever before on (a) what teachers know about the subjects they teach, (b) how well they can transmit that knowledge, (c) how to assess their competence and performance appropriately, and (d) how to inform ongoing improvements in these areas. Research highlighted in the Policy Forums reinforced the importance of these issues to improving teaching quality and the fact that teaching quality matters a great deal in student success.

Studies show that students who receive higher quality teaching for 3 consecutive years score much higher than students who have lower-quality experiences. Studies examining mathematics and science instruction reveal that teachers’ solid content knowledge is essential to successful student learning. At the same time, definitions of “high quality” vary widely; and answers to questions about how much content is enough and when more (or what type of) course work for preservice and inservice teachers will improve student outcomes, remain unclear.

Many state agencies and organizations have already undertaken reviews of issues associated with teacher quality. This review resulted in agreement about critical content knowledge and teaching skills that new teachers lack, including:

– understanding state standards and using them as the basis for instruction,

– integrating technology into curriculum and instruction, and

– teaching reading effectively in elementary school.

The Policy Forum participants noted important areas in which to concentrate next steps, resulting in recommendations for action and follow-up. Decision makers, ranging from state legislators to local boards of education and teachers’ and parents’ groups, have expanded opportunities to discuss data that can help them understand, conceptually and practically, teacher and teaching quality. These decision makers have shown heightened interest in standards as important components in all quality improvement efforts.

In addition, states, local education agencies, and other institutions have focused on assessing the effectiveness of recent and ongoing reforms to improve teaching quality. This work, within and across states, offers increasing guidance to support the interventions that demonstrate success or promise in addressing the issues of teaching quality and student achievement and to change those practices that do not.

Identifying and Addressing Staff Shortages

The Policy Forums revealed the need to identify staffing problems correctly in order to design appropriate remedies. Often, education stakeholders attribute school staffing problems to an insufficient supply. Policy Forum participants dissected critical staffing issues with the experts and then examined implications for policies that support sound preparation of qualified teachers, as well as effective recruitment and retention practices. These discussions helped policymakers gain a more expansive understanding of the problems and probable solutions.

Increasingly, research has shown that the issue is much more complex than having an insufficient supply of teachers. Indeed, critical shortages exist in certain fields and levels (e.g., mathematics, science, technology, special education). However, recent data indicate that the retention of highly qualified teachers constitutes a major challenge in all areas, with turn-over and attrition contributing significantly to teacher staffing problems. Ingersoll, for example, found that “school staffing problems are not primarily due to teacher shortages, in the technical sense of an insufficient supply of qualified teachers, rather they are primarily due to excess demand resulting from a ‘revolving door’-where large numbers of qualified teachers depart their jobs for reasons other than retirement.” Many teachers move to more attractive teaching positions; others leave the profession. According to one recent analysis of national data shared with Policy Forum participants, about one third of new teachers leave teaching sometime during their first 3 years of teaching and nearly half leave after 5 years.

Having an improved understanding of the complexities surrounding teacher shortages helps policymakers advance policies to tackle staffing issues more specifically. Jurisdictions are supporting or exploring many initiatives, including (a) legislatively earmarked recruitment strategies that identify needs and remedies specific to a district’s staffing situation, (b) salary and other compensation incentives to attract and retain qualified teachers, and (c) expanded partnerships beyond the education community tailored to address particular gaps.

Conclusion

Central to the issues covered in the Policy Forums is the challenge of how to assure that the students who face the biggest hurdles within and outside the classroom receive stable, high-quality teaching. Student access to well qualified teachers varies widely, with students in poorer and more racially isolated schools-too often low-performing schools-having inexperienced, uncertified, and out-of-field teachers. Low-income and high-minority schools face the greatest challenges in averting the devastating impact of poorly trained and skilled teachers over several school years. Teachers in high-poverty and high-minority schools report poor working conditions (e.g., poor facilities, books and other materials in short supply, large class sizes, and little administrative support) that contribute significantly to high attrition of good teachers and their aspiring but less experienced colleagues from specific schools, as well as from the profession. These challenges indicate a need to address teacher distribution, teacher support, and teaching resources to improve the learning opportunities for all children.

Sharing this knowledge about teacher quality with policymakers and other education stakeholders makes it more likely that policymakers will use data and best practices as they make decisions in support of strategies that will improve student achievement and ensure school success.

Top Benefits of a Global Atlas for Allergies

Allergic diseases today are an important health concern that affects the lives of millions of people around the world. Comprehensive documentation and effective strategies are the need of the hour to tackle allergy epidemic in a systematic way at global, regional and national levels. However, there are several areas such as education, research and development, training and clinical care where needs are still unmet. A global atlas of allergy developed by expert opinion leaders from around the world is the perfect platform and reference tool for all those involved in dealing with allergic diseases.

Building Awareness of Allergy Epidemic

Although it is estimated that over half the world’s population is sensitized and more than thirty percent have one or more allergic conditions, allergy diseases do not receive priority in national healthcare programs. This is even more evident in developing countries due to their insufficient resources and heterogeneous inhabitations. A global atlas written by leading opinion makers’ builds awareness about the socioeconomic burden of allergic conditions around the world and the need to recognize it as a top priority in healthcare strategies.

Comprehensive Information with Expert Insights

A comprehensive global atlas of allergy provides a vast array of information covering all aspects of allergy including descriptions of molecular and cellular mechanisms and risk factors to best methods for diagnosis, treatment, control, management and prevention. As a reference tool, it is of immense value to medical students, researchers, allied health workers, primary health care providers, pharmacists, policy makers, medical industry professionals, patient organizations and specialist doctors. A worldwide atlas for allergy offers guidance on how to overcome barriers such as poverty, poor infrastructure and education that are commonly observed in developing countries.

Allergy Training and Care

Two excellent ways of tackling the global allergy epidemic are optimized allergy training and clinical care. Very few professionals are involved in these two aspects because of the lack of focus on the benefits of accurate diagnosis and optimum personalized treatment. A global atlas of allergy can change this by elucidating the need for proper allergy training and care. By establishing actionable plans for strategy development and resource management, it helps policy makers worldwide take strong decisions. One significant contribution of a worldwide allergy atlas is the development of a global strategy concept that seeks to bring together various shareholders such as schools, patient organizations, pharmacist, allied and primary health care providers.

How to Access

There are some reputed organizations working to build awareness, promote research, collect and disseminate scientific information about allergies and immunologic diseases. They have already published global atlases of allergy as well as specific conditions such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and chronic rhino sinusitis that have been developed by reputed opinion leaders as desktop references with multi spectral usages. Anyone interested can go online and read them for free to gain comprehensive information on allergy conditions.

Don’t fight the battle against allergic diseases blindly – arm yourself with scientific information and education to make the world a better place for those suffering from allergies!

Why Use Podcasting in Higher Education and Training?

Podcasting is only one technology within a whole array of web-based technologies that are used in distance education. In addition, podcasting can be used in many different instructional ways. Therefore, there are many combinations of what is possible with podcasting in education.

For example, consider combining a teacher podcasting with student and teacher discussion groups, and vlogging of student presentations. Or perhaps a face-to-face class in which students create a podcast project that extends in rotation across several class sessions. In this way students can participate in sharing research and perspectives on course material.

The important point is that we do not have to be confined to one model of instruction. This premise is especially true when we have the opportunity to work with digital natives who may very well catalyze new perspectives of the content during the creative process.

Podcasting has been a movement by which more of the general public could be part of the media. It is called the “democratization of the media”.

In a similar way, couldn’t podcasting be a push in the direction of co-learning in colleges and universities? Perhaps, we could begin to see teachers and students share, dialogue and engage more through this media. The professors are content experts, the students may provide expertise in the digital culture. This provides a place where we might have a creative nexus.

In addition, large questions lie right in front of us that I believe students of all ages in higher education can explore, such as:

  • Political issues that collide in the close spaces of our classrooms
  • Cultural understandings that need to be understood within our local and global communities
  • Economic issues that impact worldwide audiences rather than solely local or regional spaces

Such questions pose fertile opportunities for 20, 30, or 50 year old learners as podcasters. Or similarly any aged podcast listener?

From creating podcasts, to critiquing their meaning and constructing new understandings, digital media is a nexus of innovation, technology and empowerment and these are generative elements. Let’s unleash some new possibilities of deeper learning coupled with creativity and expressing understanding. Effective communicators of the 21st century will need these same skills for their professional success. Why not take advantage of the need, the resources and the opportunity to develop engaging critical audio projects in higher education classrooms and training settings?

In a future article, we will discuss how podcasts provide other benefits for these constituencies also.

Student Loans – Financial Aid for Students

When looking for student loans, the question about financial aid always comes up. To come straight to the point, yes, financial aid is readily available for those students who wish to take advantage of it.

Financial aid can come in many different forms such as Scholarships, Employment opportunities, Private Loans, Government Loans and Grants.

Monetary aid is always available for students who have been approved or who meet the necessary criteria from the lending institutions.

Aid is also renewable each year that you remain at the educational institution and keep studying.

Also there can be money provided for you to fill in the difference (or shortfall) between you and any other family resources you may have access to.

Great

The great thing about this type of aid is that it is there so as to allow those financially disadvantages students the opportunity to be educated. As long as the student continues to remain eligible on a yearly basis, then the aid is always there for them.

It is also true that any aid you may be granted is only intended to help supplement any other financial support you may have from other sources.

Available

It is available from Government, state, Educational institutions and private companies. The purpose of this aid is to help with the educational expenses which include many things such as fees, school books, accommodation, transportation costs and other expenses the student may incur.

Provide that the student qualifies with the conditions of the loan provider and also as long as the student is capable of meeting the financial needs to service the loan on a monthly basis then financial aid can be obtained.

Many

Monetary aid can be obtained from many different sources and if you are a doctoral student, then you may be eligible for a full scholarship.

As mentioned above this aid can be It is usually provided by private companies, Government both Federal and State., and by the educational institutions themselves.

Research

It is always important of course that you conduct your own research into the types of financial aid that your require because no-one knows your situation as good as you.

One of the best places to gain more useful information is the educational facility itself, these places always have councilors who are armed with the latest information about what financial aid is available.

The last place you can go to is the internet, why go here last? The reason is so that once you have received the information from your educational institute, you can then use the internet as a ‘double check’.

I hope you have gained a little more insight about student loans and financial aid.